A United States (Union) soldier received $13 a month plus a clothing allowance. A Confederate States of America private made $11 a month.
Supplemental bounties were important for both sides. U.S. soldiers “… enlisting in July-August 1862 received a federal bounty of $100 ($25 paid immediately, the rest upon discharge). Men enlisting in 1864 got $302 (veteran volunteers got $402.). Some states, counties, townships and communities … also offer[ed] bounties….”
“Southern bounties, especially in 1863 and later, were often conditional — payable once the war had been won….”
“Men could not support large families on Army pay, so charitable organizations attempted to supplement Army pay with relief payments to soldiers’ wives.”
Source: “Thirteen Dollars a Month: Recruitment, Enlistment, Conscription, and Desertion in the American Civil War,” Tom Pearson, St. Louis Public Library, St. Clair County Genealogical Society Quarterly, Belleville, Illinois, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2010